Name 
Motivation 
Driven By 
Year 

Solution 


No technical aids for scientific calculations only clocks, sextants or other measuring devices 

1600 


John Napier 
Tables Crisis people spent hours pouring over figures in every 40 volumes of mathematical tables there were about 47,000 errors 
Banking Industry 
1617 

Napier's bones  first attempt to reduce time and effort spent  each rod has a multiplication table for a particular digit  used by several inventors 
Blaise Pascal 
Arithmetic Calculations 
Tax Collection 
1642 

First digital calculator  wheels with a carry mechanism
revolving clockwise subtract using marks on oppositie side of wheel and increasing in opposite direction
gear cutting not perfected  mechanisms would fall out of order 
JosephMarie Jacquard 
Quantities of fabric could be produced at a faster rate than complex patterns could be woven by skilled weavers 
Textile Industry 
1804 

Jacquard looms  use a tape of stiff pasteboard cards with weaving instructions imprinted on them 
Charles Babbage 
in every 40 volumes of mathematical tables there were about 47,000 errors  table of squares to five places logarithmic tables without errors 
Tables Crisis 
1821 

Difference Engine  would stamp result on a copper plate  completed by Scheutz in 1873  printed tables successfully 
Charles Babbage 
General purpose computer that follows instructions from punched cards 

1833 

Analytical Engine  completed by Science Museum in 1991 (weighs 2.6 Tonnes with 4,000 parts) 
Luigi Menabrea 
Promote French Decimal System  produce Logarithmic and Trigonometric Tables 
French Government 
1842 

Reported and extended Babbage's work on the Analytical Engine to show that it can be used for any analytical function 
Ada Lovelace 


1842 

First Program for the Analytical Engine  to calculate Bernoulli numbers 
William Burroughs 


1886 

First commercially successful mechanical adding machine 
Hermann Hollerith 
U.S. Census  Time needed to tabulate results extends beyond the next census date 
U.S. Government 
1890 

Electomechanical machine for adding and sorting perforated card data  sold to Russians for their first census in 1895 
Vladimir Zworykin 

Westinghouse 
1929 

Cathode Ray Tube invented 
George Stibitz 
Speedup complex number calculations 
Bell Labs 
1940 

Complex Number Calculator  first binary calculator  instructions via paper tape 
Konrad Zuse 
Solve systems of linear equations 

1941 

Z3  electromechanical computer controlled by relays  instructions on paper tape 
Howard Aiken 
2 to 3 months to produce a ballistic table 
U.S. Navy 
1942 

Mark I  electromechanical computer controlled by relays  18,000 vacuum tubes  6,000 switches  instructions on paper tape  data on punched cards  output on punched cards  multiply 11 digit numbers in 3sec 
Grace Hopper 

U.S. Navy 
1944 

First programmer for the Mark I 
John von Neumann 
Solution of fluid dynamics equations  Successor to the forthcoming ENIAC 
U.S. Navy 
1945 

EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)  storedprogram computer 
Eckert & Mauchly 
Trajectory Tables 
U.S. Army 
1945 

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator)  80 Tons  5000 additions and 360 multiplications per sec  multiply 10 digit numbers in 3msec 
William Shockley 
Alternative to Vacuum Tube Relays 
Telephone Companies 
1947 

Invented Transistor with John Bardeen and Walter Brattain 
Grace Hopper 
Introduce mneumonics that will be translated into machine code 
Readability 
1949 

Designed the first compiler 
Maurice Wilkes 
von Neumann's concept of stored programs 
Cambridge Computing Laboratory 
1949 

EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator)  first operational, stored program computer 
Maurice Wilkes 
Readability 
Cambridge Computing Laboratory 
1950 

Symbolic Assembly Language on EDSAC 
IBM 


1953 

701  IBM's first vacuumtube storedprogram computer 
John Backus 


1954 

FORTRAN  first highlevel programming language 
Gene Amdahl 


1954 

First operating system for the IBM 704 
IBM 


1959 

1620 and 1790  first transistorized computer 
Ken Iverson 
Algebraic Manipulation 

1961 

APL Language 
Kurtz & Kemeny 
Programming for Beginners 

1964 

BASIC Language 
Intel 


1968 

Founded by Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce 
Nicklaus Wirth 
Structured Programming 

1969 

PASCAL Language 
Ken Thompson 
Interactivity and Timesharing 
Bell Labs 
1970 

UNIX operating system 
Intel 


1971 

4004  the first microprocessor 
John Blankenbaker 


1971 

First personal computer  Kenbak I 
Denis Ritchie 
UNIX in a high level language 
Bell Labs 
1973 

C programming language 
Microsoft 


1975 

Founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen 
Apple 


1977 

Personal computer industry launched 
IBM 
Playing Catch Up 

1981 

Enters personal computer market 
Microsoft 


1982 

MSDOS  operating system for PCs 
Bjarne Stroustrup 
Upgradability 
Bell Labs 
1983 

C++ programming language 
IBM 
Advanced Technology 

1984 

PC AT 80286 microprocessor 
Sun Microsystems 
Develop UNIX 

1988 

Help AT&T develop next version of UNIX  will lead to Solaris in 1991 
Intel 


1989 

80486 microprocessor  > 1M transistors per chip 
Microsoft 


1992 

Windows 3.1  operating system for PCs 
Microsoft 
Networks and Security 

1993 

Windows NT  operating system for PCs 
Intel 


1993 

Pentium I microprocessor 
Linus Torvalds 
Open Source 

1994 

Linux Kernel  version 1.0 released 
James Gosling 
One code  many machines 
Sun Microsystems 
1995 

Java 